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Professor’s Comment:

The referencing and citing of scholarly work is mandatory to support the idea that is being presented in the participation discussion. ALL peer responses require an in text citation, a reference, and 6 or more sentences. References should be between 2018 to 2022.

Post 1:

The endocrine system is made up of glands throughout the body which release hormones into the bloodstream in which various organs and receptors respond to the hormones. Hormones can be described as messengers which help regulate body functions such as insulin, testosterone, growth hormone, and thyroid hormone. A prevalent metabolic endocrine disorder is diabetes mellitus (DM). DM is a pancreas disorder characterized by high blood glucose levels, in which the body is unable to produce insulin, known as type 1 DM or type 2 DM, where the body is unable to utilize the insulin that is produced (Falkner & Green, 2018). Management of DM begins with recognizing the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. Blood glucose levels less than 70 mg/dl may cause symptoms such as diaphoresis, dizziness, and decreased level of consciousness. If the patient can appropriately swallow, oral glucose is appropriate. IV dextrose can also be administered. Blood glucose levels greater than 130 mg/dl is considered hyperglycemia. The patient may have a sweet or fruity smell of the breath, increased thirst, and increased urination. Treat with insulin as prescribed by the provider.

Long-term or uncontrolled hyperglycemia leads to microvascular and macrovascular diabetic complications. This can lead to organ dysfunction. Kindey-associated complications lead to renal failure, hyperglycemia can affect the eyes causing progression to blindness, heart-related complications may lead to hypertension and coronary artery disease, and nerve-associated complications lead to neuropathy (Med, 2020).

Patients may face negative experiences from diabetes which include physical, emotional., social and financial factors. Patients may struggle with the stigma of diabetes, weight management, time commitments, and confidence. As nurses, the priority is to provide education to support patient self-management of disease. The nurse should educate on aspects such as diet, exercise, prevention of complications, and overall health promotion.

References

Falkner, A. & Green, S. (2018). Pathophysiology Clinical Applications for Client Health. Musculoskeletal, Metabolism, and Multisystem Complexities. Retrieved from 
https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs410v/pathophysiology-clinical-applications-for-client-health/v1.1/#/chapter/5

Med, A. (2020). Pathophysiology of Diabetes. Retrieved from 

Professor’s Comment:

The referencing and citing of scholarly work is mandatory to support the idea that is being presented in the participation discussion. ALL peer responses require an in text citation, a reference, and 6 or more sentences. References should be between 2018 to 2022.

Post 3:

Musculoskeletal disorders comprise diverse conditions affecting bones, joints, muscles, and connective tissues (Falkner and Green, 2018). These disorders may result in pain and loss of function and are among the most disabling and costly conditions. Disorders of the musculoskeletal system are conditions that might result from hereditary, congenital, or acquired pathologic processes. Impairments may result from infectious, inflammatory, or degenerative processes, traumatic or developmental events, or neoplastic, vascular, or toxic/metabolic diseases. Musculoskeletal health refers to the performance of the locomotor system, comprising intact muscles, bones, joints and adjacent connective tissues. There are more than 150 different diseases/conditions that affect the system and are characterized by impairments in the muscles, bones, joints and adjacent connective tissues leading to temporary or lifelong limitations in functioning and participation.

Musculoskeletal conditions are typically characterized by pain and limitations in mobility and dexterity, reducing people’s ability to work and participate in society. Pain experienced in musculoskeletal structures is the most common form of non-cancer pain. Pain, stiffness, and other limitations imposed by musculoskeletal disorders can make even simple household tasks and everyday activities a formidable challenge (El-Tallawy, Nalamasu, Salem, LeQuang, Pergolizzi and Christo, 2021). Besides the direct cost of the burden of musculoskeletal disorders, such as hospital inpatient care, outpatient care, doctor consultations, cost of drugs and surgical interventions, a large portion of indirect costs due to dependency of these patients on others for their daily activities, need to be considered, along with the consequent loss of productivity. It is psychologically stressing to be unable to do activities that one used to be doing, therefore patients with musculoskeletal disorders need a lot of counseling and psychological support.

El-Tallawy, S. N., Nalamasu, R., Salem, G. I., LeQuang, J. A. K., Pergolizzi, J. V., & Christo, P. J. (2021) Management of Musculoskeletal Pain: An Update with Emphasis on Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain. Pain and therapy, 10(1), 181–209. 
https://doi.org/10.1007/s40122-021-00235-2

Falkner, A. & Green, S. (2018). Musculoskeletal, Metabolism, and Multisystem Complexities. In Grand Canyon University (Ed). Pathophysiology Clinical Applications for Client Health. Retrieved from 
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