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CS308 – Operating System
Assignment III (10 points)

Part I (3 points):
While working with computers, you may need to create a file(s) and a folder(s). You can -in each folder- find, create,
and remove a file(s) and a sub-folder(s). You can also -in each sub-folder- find, create, and remove a file(s) and a sub-
folder(s), and so on. A folder, in the field of operating systems, is referred to as a directory. Sub-folder means folder
within a folder. Such a structure of directories, sub-directories, and files is known as a file system (as we will discuss
more in unit 6). In this part of the assignment, we will start a discussion on some Linux commands to navigate within
a file system, and discuss more commands in assignment4.

Open the Ubuntu virtual machine you installed. After your log in using the credentials, open a terminal, and test the
following commands:

Any Linux command is structured as follows:

The command [list of attributes/options as input(s) to the command]

Command1: ls
Very similar to when you double click on a folder (e.g., Downloads) to see the content (files and sub-folder), “ls” –
which stands for List- is used to display information about the files and sub-directories in the current directory. Do
some search on the internet to read about the following “ls” options. Type the command in the terminal (one by one),
click enter to run the command, take a screenshot of the output, and then explain the purpose (the different
parameters/info of the output) of the command in your own words – Before you move to the next command.

The ls commands we would like to try are:
ls

ls -a

ls -l

Command2: pwd
After you open folders and sub-folders, you may want to know where you are within the filesystem (e.g.,
/Downloads/Assignments/Assignment3). “pwd” -which stands for Print Working Directory- is used to display the
path of the working directory (where are you in the system). Type the command in the terminal, click enter to run, and
take a screenshot of the output.

Command3: cd
Using the Windows graphical interface, you can double-click to open a folder or click the back button to return to the
parent folder. Through the terminal, we have an essential command called “cd” -which stands for the Change
Directory.

After you run the ls command, you will find the different file(s) and sub-folder(s). Let us assume you find a sub-folder
named Folder_M (this is just a name, so try one of the folders you find after your run ls).
To open Folder_M, try:

cd Folder_M

To return to the parent directory, try:

cd ..

For each of these two cd commands: Type the command in the terminal, run the “pwd” command, then the “ls”
command, and take a screenshot of the output.

Part II (7 points – 3.5 points per proble