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1. Micronutrients, often known as vitamins and minerals, are essential for growth, illness prevention, and wellness. Micronutrients must be obtained from the diet because they are not produced in the body except for vitamin D (CBC, 2014). Iodin is one of the micronutrients that is required during pregnancy, an infant’s healthy growth, and cognitive development. Therefore, iodine deficiency can cause hypothyroidism and impaired infant neurobehavioral development in pregnancy. Iodin toxicity also can cause thyroiditis, thyroid papillary cancer, and hyperthyroidism. Mild symptoms of iodine toxicity can be nausea, vomiting, GI upset, and diarrhea, which may progress to shock (Southern & Jwayyed, 2022). Another example of a micronutrient is iron, which is essential for motor and cognitive development, and a deficiency of iron can lead to anemia (CBC, 2014). A large amount of iron can cause iron poisoning, and symptoms usually happen within 6 hours after a large amount of iron is swallowed. Severe vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and dehydration can be iron poisoning symptoms. Micronutrients are crucial for maintaining healthy metabolism and tissue function. Therefore, it is essential to consume enough micronutrients. Many micronutrients like vitamins A, C, and E have antioxidant properties, reducing chronic illness risk. As an example of disease and micronutrients, Postmenopausal women are at risk of developing osteoporosis. While these micronutrients, calcium, and vitamin D deficiencies are not the leading cause of the condition, they do help and improve bone mass. So, getting enough of these vitamins earlier in life can reduce the risk of developing osteoporosis later (Shenkin, 2006)
2. Micronutrients play a key role in body metabolism and tissue function. Micronutrients are vitamins and mineral that are used as a source of increased cellular function, red blood cell production, and bone development (Shenkin, 2006). Although vitamins and minerals are important for body function and metabolism, too much of these two can lead to toxicity and deficiencies. Two great examples of micronutrients that can lead to toxicity and deficiency are iron and vitamin D. For example, a female who takes a high dose of prenatal vitamins containing iron can cause lead to her unborn child (Malinowski et al., 2021). Some of common signs and symptoms of iron toxicity in pregnant mothers are nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Contrarily to iron toxicity, iron deficiency in pregnancy can present with fatigue, weakness, dizziness, hair loss, and irritability. Thus, it is very important that expectant mother is educated on proper intake and dosage of prenatal vitamins. Vitamin D is another micronutrient, that is essential in the body as it helps absorb calcium and phosphorus which helps us grow strong bones. Unfortunately, when taken in high doses it can lead to hypercalcemia (buildup of calcium in the blood). An individual with excess amounts of vitamin D will have signs and symptoms of nausea, vomiting, and excess urination, which is the body’s way of emptying excess amounts of Vitamin D. For this excess amount of Vitamin D a physician will typically recommend patient to stay off vitamin D and calcium products (Mayo Clinic, n.d.) Contrarily to toxicity, some individuals can also be deficient in vitamin D which can cause depression, hair loss, and thin, brittle bones. Adults deficient in vitamin D will have symptoms of bone pain, weakness, easily contracted colds, and sleeping problems. Furthermore, according to research vitamin D has been proven to be a vital in preventing a disease known as Osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a condition where the bones in the body become thin and brittle causing bone pain and leading to chronic bone problems (Wang et al., 2017). Daily consumption of vitamin D can work to prevent underdevelopment of bones and slow down deterioration in the long term for an adult. Anemia is a disorder caused by low levels of iron in the blood resulting in the insufficiency of hemoglobin (oxygen in the red blood cells). For individuals with anemia it is recommended that they take an iron supplement daily or ferrous sulfate to prevent anemic flare ups that could cause a patient to be hospitalized. Taking iron supplement daily will help the body make hemoglobin, which is part of the red blood cells, and help remove and prevent carbon dioxide build up (Pasini et al., 2021).
3. Qualitative research focuses more on subjective information provided by the patient. It allows for a more authentic understanding of what patients face as individuals during treatments and after. (Cleland, 2017) Researchers felt this type of study was most important because it allowed them to get a better visual of cancer directly from the source that’s experiencing it, the patient. This will allow researchers to view where change is needed and implement on that change to better the experiences for these patients. This study was performed to understand the quality of life these patients are experiencing and what makes their experiences better ones or worse ones. What affected their quality and what we can do to help maintain and contribute to that positive quality of life. Researchers felt this approach was just as important as the initial treatment such as chemotherapy and should be included in the practice. (Sibeoni, 2018)
This study found information that has helped these individuals and what contributed to their positive quality of life during these treatments. Based on their findings, negative effects on quality of life aimed towards the side effects of treatments. What positively affected their quality of life was the use of a support object or activity during their treatment as well as relationships. (Sibeoni, 2018) This study didn’t assess the patient’s wellness based on data but assessed it in a more personal way. It allowed for direct conversations and opinions from patients. Subjective data that can be useful to others. Cancer affects patients individually in different ways than others. This can be mentally or physically. There are things people do differently than others that help them carry on that quality of life they want to have. As healthcare professionals, it’s important we do whatever it is possible to help maintain that comfortability and meaningful experience. This research focuses on creating and maintaining a good quality of life for the patients.
4. Cancer is a disease that has affected many of our lives. Whether we or someone know has had or has cancer, it can be a devastating disease. Thankfully, the study of oncology has made great progression in improving the treatment of cancer and the mortality rates. With these advances, it is more common to live long term with cancer. According to Sibeoni et al. (2018), no qualitative study had been completed investigating the quality of life cancer patients have when receiving treatment for cancer. The authors of that paper felt it was important to complete this qualitative study of patient’s quality of daily life because the according to other authors, patient’s quality of life when receiving cancer treatment is the leading patient-reported outcome. To complete their qualitative study the authors, “used qualitative methodology: sampling was purposive, data were collected from individual interviews, and data saturation was achieved according to the principle of theoretical sufficiency” (Sibeoni et al, 2018). After completing their qualitative study, they found that the patients reported that treatment side effects were what most greatly negatively impacted their lives. The patients reported three different components that positively affected their quality of daily life. First was a support object or relationship, second was the perceived effectiveness of their treatment, and lastly was their relationships with family, friends, physicians, and the healthcare team. Knowing these aspects of what affects their patient’s quality of life can impact how physicians choose to approach their treatment, which may be another reason why these authors felt their study was important. This research study was qualitative which differs in many ways from many other studies focused on the treatment of cancer patients. Most other studies are quantitative in nature, while this study focused on the qualitative results of patient’s cancer treatment. Understanding the quality of life cancer patients have is important in providing well rounded patient education on what new cancer patients may experience.