Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Part 2: ? Interpretation of Point Estimates with Confidence Intervals (35 points in total) ? Use Table 2 to answer the following questions. 1 ? For which of the birth defects listed below do Non-Hi… | paledu.org
  
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Part 2: Interpretation of Point Estimates with Confidence Intervals…

Part 2:  Interpretation of Point Estimates with Confidence Intervals (35 points in total) 

Use Table 2 to answer the following questions.1 

For which of the birth defects listed below do Non-Hispanic Blacks have a statistically significantly higher prevalence than Non-Hispanic Whites? (2 points) 

For which of the birth defects listed below do Non-Hispanic Blacks have a statistically significantly lower prevalence than Non-Hispanic Whites? (5 points) 

For which of the birth defects listed below do Hispanics have a statistically significantly higher prevalence than Non-Hispanic Whites? (4 points) 

For which of the birth defects listed below do Hispanics have a statistically significantly lower prevalence than Non-Hispanic Whites? (3 points) 

For which of the birth defects listed below do Non-Hispanic Asians and Pacific Islanders have a statistically significantly higher prevalence than Non-Hispanic Whites? (1 point) 

For which of the birth defects listed below do Non-Hispanic Asians and Pacific Islanders have a statistically significantly lower prevalence than Non-Hispanic Whites? (5 points) 

For which of the birth defects listed below do Non-Hispanic American Indians and Alaskan Natives have a statistically significantly higher prevalence than Non-Hispanic Whites? (2 points) 

Table 2: Prevalence Ratios with 95% Confidence Intervals for Birth Defects of the Central Nervous System, Ear and Cardiovascular System among Major Maternal Racial/Ethnic Groups, as Compared to Non-Hispanic Whites, United States, Pooled from 1999-20072 

Birth Defect 

 

 

 

 

Non-Hispanic Black 

 

 

Hispanic 

 

 

Non-Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islander 

 

 

Non-Hispanic AI/AN3 

 

 

PR (95% CI) 

 

 

PR (95% CI) 

 

 

PR (95% CI) 

 

 

PR (95% CI) 

 

 

Central Nervous System: 

 

 

 

 

 

Anencephaly 

 

 

1.09 (0.93-1.28) 

 

 

1.64 (1.47-1.83) 

 

 

1.05 (0.79-1.40) 

 

 

1.30 (0.76-2.22) 

 

 

Spina Bifida without Anencephaly 

 

 

0.88 (0.80-0.97) 

 

 

1.24 (1.15-1.33) 

 

 

0.43 (0.34-0.56) 

 

 

1.19 (0.86-1.66) 

 

 

Encephalocele 

 

 

1.75 (1.48-2.07) 

 

 

1.53 (1.32-1.78) 

 

 

0.80 (0.53-1.22) 

 

 

2.14 (1.22-3.76) 

 

 

 

 

 

Ear: 

 

 

 

 

 

Anotia/microtia 

 

 

0.66 (0.55-0.79) 

 

 

2.40 (2.18-2.64) 

 

 

1.36 (1.09-1.70) 

 

 

3.97 (2.89-5.44) 

 

 

 

 

 

Cardiovascular: 

 

 

 

 

 

Common Truncus 

 

 

1.08 (0.90-1.29) 

 

 

1.00 (0.85-1.17) 

 

 

0.34 (0.19-0.60) 

 

 

1.74 (0.95-3.20) 

 

 

Transposition of Great Arteries 

 

 

0.83 (0.75-0.91) 

 

 

0.93 (0.86-1.00) 

 

 

0.95 (0.82-1.11) 

 

 

1.02 (0.95-3.20) 

 

 

Tetralogy of Fallot 

 

 

1.19 (1.10-1.28) 

 

 

0.93 (0.87-1.00) 

 

 

1.07 (0.93-1.23) 

 

 

1.23 (0.91-1.67) 

 

 

Aortic Value Stenosis 

 

 

0.53 (0.46-0.61) 

 

 

0.75 (0.68-0.82) 

 

 

0.57 (0.45-0.74) 

 

 

0.82 (0.54-1.26) 

 

 

Hypoplastic Left Heart 

 

 

1.05 (0.95-1.16) 

 

 

0.88 (0.81-0.97) 

 

 

0.53 (0.41-0.69) 

 

 

0.78 (0.49-1.25) 

 

 

Coarctation of the Aorta 

 

 

0.77 (0.71-0.83) 

 

 

0.87 (0.82-0.93) 

 

 

0.58 (0.49-0.68) 

 

 

 (0.82-1.42) 

 

 

 

 

Are there any birth defects listed above for which Non-Hispanic American Indians and Alaskan Natives have a statistically significantly lower prevalence than Non-Hispanic Whites? (1 point) 

Using 2.00 and 0.5 as cut-offs, cite the prevalence ratios from the table above that indicate a strong positive and statistically significant association. For each, list the type of birth defect, the ethnic group which is being compared to Non-Hispanic Whites, prevalence ratio and confidence interval. (6 points) 

Using 2.00 and 0.5 as cut-offs, list the prevalence ratios from the table above that indicate a strong negative and statistically significant association.  For each, list the type of birth defect, the ethnic group which is being compared to Non-Hispanic Whites, prevalence ratio and confidence interval. (4 points) 

From an epidemiologic/statistical standpoint, what is the probable reason that there are fewer statistically significant differences between Non-Hispanic American Indians and Alaskan Natives in comparison to Non-Hispanic Whites than for the other racial/ethnic groups when they are also compared to Non-Hispanic Whites? (2 points) 

 

 

 

 

Data taken from Canfield, M.A., Mai, C.T., Wang, Y., O’Halloran, A., Marengo, L.K., Olney, R.S., et. al. The association between race/ethnicity and major birth defects in the United States, 1999-2007. American Journal of Public Health, 104(9): e14-e23. [2] Compared to Infants of Non-Hispanic White Mothers [3] American Indians and Alaskan Natives