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PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS ? CONTENT ANALYSIS ASSIGNMENT
Rochelle Vanessa Nelson
Senior Level Thesis Project 2 (COMU 4001)
Cristina Guerrero
March 30, 2022

Anti-Plagiarism statement:
?I have read and understood and understood Humber?s online tutorial on plagiarism ?You Quote It, You Note It!? available at http://library.humber.ca/tutorials/QuoteIT/index.html ?

Student?s Signature: R Nelson
Mental Health Effects of Youth Living in Marginalized Urban Communities in North America
Introduction
Mental health is one of the biggest health issues in the world today. According to Garc?a (2011) surveys, 1 in 4 people experience mental health issues. Mental disorder joins the most contagious diseases, including cancer, hypertension, obesity, and diabetes, creating havoc in society and accounts for 7.4% of the global healthcare burden (Garc?a et al., 2011). Social and physical environments have been found to affect mental health in various ways. According to the Centre for Urban Design and Mental Health Research, the urban environment can negatively or positively contribute to mental wellbeing or mental health (Mortier et al., 2018). Urban centres are highly related to higher rates of mental health problems. People living in marginalized urban settlements have a 40% higher risk of experiencing mental health problems than those living in rural areas. According to the Centre for Urban Design and Mental Health Research, marginalized urban settlements are associated with various mental problems, including Increased anxiety disorder, increased mood disorder, and high risk of schizophrenia (Mortier et al., 2018).
Mental health is a state where the encephalon’s efficient public presentation contributes to productive activities, good interpersonal connections, and the capacity to adjust to and overcome change. As a result of the encephalon’s increased or reduced activity, mental upheavals have been categorized as a wellness condition. Different complications, such as hurting, being disabled, or dying, might arise due to mental disturbances. The term “mental illness” is used to describe a wide range of disorders of the mind (Crumb & Brown, 2019).
Emotional reactions are a vital contributor to disability. Mental illness is the leading cause of sickness in Canada. A good number of Canadian adults have been reported to have severely mentally ill. Mental upheavals linked to a 25 percent loss of life clip via disability and early death in Canada.
There is a complex association between urban living and mental disorders. Various research has provided results focusing on the effects of such health problems but providing little on risk factors and control. There exist various risk factors which expose people living in marginalized areas to mental health problems. These factors include pre-existing factors related to unemployment, poverty, personal crises, drug addiction, previous traumas, and immigration. These may be categorized under individual risk factors. However, other risk factors are related to reporting bias and socioeconomic factors. There is a need to thoroughly research this issue and provide some prevention and intervention measures provided the problems associated with mental ill-health in the urban settlements, including increased crime rates, unending poverty, and a general increase in the cost of health care.
Background
Urbanization which many scholars have defined as the development of towns caused by industrialization does not just come with demographic changes but also comes with psychological, social, and economic changes that form part of the demographic movement. Urban centres remain one of the most important health issues provided by the rapid increase in population. Marginalized urban centres continue to grow more rapidly than before, and so does the urban population. The United Nations Population Division provided a projection that by 2050, two-thirds of the world?s population will be living in urban centres (Hassan et at., 2019). With urbanization come an array of disadvantages and advantages. The demographic growth happening in most urban centres comes with changes in socioeconomic organizations, patterns of life, and economic changes. Some of these changes come with severe physical, emotional, and mental distortion.
The constant socioeconomic changes in the urban areas come with challenges which include loss of jobs, overcrowding, environmental pollution, reduced social support, and increased violence (Anakwenze & Zuberi, 2013). These profound changes have been greatly linked to mental ill-health in the majority of urban settlements. The impact of demographic changes in most urban centres has increased the rate of mental disorders in almost every country. the underlying reason is that the movement of people to urban centres requires a proportional increase in infrastructure (Hassan et at., 2019). However, this is not the case in many countries in developing and undeveloped countries. This leads to decreased social support for an increasing population. According to Patel, vulnerable young people and poor individuals experience psychological diversity and mental disorders (Garc?a et al., 2011).
Literature Review
World Health Organization provides that the deviances and disorders associated with urbanization are very high (Murphy & Fonagy, 2012). Because of the several challenges of demographic transitions and movements, the urban population has been exposed to various challenging moments, especially young people. These scenarios have led to various physical and mental disorders. Very many young people experience mental ill-health of various kinds in the urban centres. According to Bickman et al., the most severe mental problems affecting youths in North America include substance abuse, depression, family disintegration, alcoholism, and crime (Bickman et al., 2017). Cannon et al. also recognize these mental problems; however, they argue that the leading mental issues among youths living in Urban areas include dementia and major depression, which account for 46% of the total cases related to mental disorders (Cannon et al., 2008). According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the mental health crisis among American youths has been real and rising, especially during the Covid-19 pandemic (Bickman et al., 2017). Lewis 2009 provides that youths are highly likely to be mentally affected by various physical and social environment changes because they form a critical part of the population and still undergoing mental development (Hughes et al., 2010).
Studies have shown increased symptoms of depression, including increased drug abuse and suicide among Canadian youths (Patel et al., 2007). Various factors have been attributed to the increased cases of mental issues in North American cities. According to Richard Friedman, a researcher, and a psychiatrist, young people want help with counselling centres less to cater to rising cases (Cannon et al., 2008). The National Survey on Drug Use and Health reveals that cases of opioid overdose have been reported in many of the North American States, with Canada being the leading (MacDonald et al., 2013). Studies done in 2017 reveal that mental health, particularly depression among youths between 20-21 years, has doubled since 2009 and has risen from 7 to 15 percent (Wiens et al., 2020). Youths aged between 18-25 years have shown feelings of anxiety because of homelessness. According to research National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 13 % of youths aged 22-23 years in Bermuda have attempted suicide, twice the number reported in 2015 (Wiens et al., 2020). The increase in metal issues provided by various agencies and research institutes appears exclusively among young adults and youths (Lewis, 2009).
Theoretical Orientation
The research will apply the social constructivism approach to theory. Social constructivism will assist me in identifying the impacts that mental health has on youths living in marginalized urban areas (Adams, 2006). According to social constructivism theory, individuals foster the idiosyncratic meaning of their experiences (Kim, 2001). These meanings are diverse and direct the researcher to source for the complexity of interpretation instead of tapering connotations into a few ideas or classifications. Such research aims to depend on interpretations done by contributors concerning the topic under study. By using this theoretical approach blended with various contributions sourced from blogs and peer-reviewed articles, I will be able to gain meaning from the people living in the marginal urban centres and those who experience mental problems. Social constructivism supports this and helps the researcher understand the complexities among the participants (Fosnot & Perry, 1996).
Role of the Researcher
A mental health researcher investigates how mental illnesses impact communities and how demographic, environmental, and social variables influence the course and manifestation of psychological illnesses. To better understand the origins and implications of psychiatric illness, mental health researchers will participate in clinical practice to improve public treatment and preventative programs (Zhou et al., 2018). The researcher must identify patterns in community mental health disorders, gather data via observations and interactions with the public; perform tests to uncover correlations between cognitive and emotional processes. The researcher must also create and test intervention, treatment, and prevention ideas and report results to other healthcare professionals to better serve the public.
I choose this specific topic for my thesis because of my own personal lived experience living in Toronto community housing. The community is urbanized, and it is important to consider the traumas associated with living there. For example, there is ongoing exposure to elements such as gun violence, substance abuse and addiction. There is also an increasing presence of gentrification, which is further widening the gaps between social classes. For example, there are many new condominium complexes being built and yet the housing developments that are already here are not having their issues addressed. There are various mental health impacts as a result. The people living in the housing developments are often left out of decision making regarding their communities and are not heard, which increasingly worsens as time progresses, in turn, becoming mentally draining to those impacted. This is a result of marginalization and how it negatively affects the well-being of individuals living in such environments.
Methodology
The research utilized content analysis to analyze most of the already completed research on the topic of mental health in marginalized urban communities for validity. The researcher cross-referenced the sources collected to triangulate the data and minimize the bias that could arise as a result of lived experiences. The researcher also demonstrated a commitment to ethical research by completing the TCPS certificate as required by Humber College?s Bachelor Of Child and Youth Care program. In addition, the researcher has conducted all steps of the research process as per the ethical procedures of the Humber College Ethics Review Board.
The research was completed by the content analysis method. The method involved an unobtrusive technique to analyze already published data and information. Both relational and conceptual content analysis were used to analyze psychological concepts in the works and assess the relationship among the concepts. Moreover, the research used a conventional approach to describe various phenomena and factors associated with mental health in areas where existing theories seemed inadequate. This technique was appropriate for identifying personal triggers of depression which have not been fully researched. In other words, research on personal triggers of depression is inconclusive.
The research relied purely on internet sources of data from peer-reviewed journals and websites. A total of 9 sources were utlized. Of those, 6 were peer-reviewed journal articles, and the remaining 3 were websites addressing topics of mental health and environmental factors. The search terms included: mental health, urbanized communities, living with mental health, pandemic and mental health effects, and minorities and mental health. The researcher sought to find sources dated over the past 2 years to also address the COVID-19 pandemic. The researcher also limited the geographic context to North and South America, specifically to address marginalized urban centres and the cities surrounding them.
The relevant knowledge on methodological factors in mental health research was synthesized in an integrated review. It was decided to use the WHO definition of mental health as a basis for the review. The capacity to deal with normal pressures of life, functioning and productivity at work, and the ability to participate successfully in community life” is defined as “mental health” by WHO. Using a wide range of data sources, this research examines methodological issues in mental health research from a holistic perspective. Problem identification, literature search, data evaluation, data reduction, comparison, and presentation are the stages of the methodology used to conduct the research. This process is also described in further detail in the Data Analysis section that follows.
Data Analysis
Data collection methods and analysis for mental health care qualitative research may take several forms. Ethnographic research, document reviews, and more organized techniques combining qualitative and quantitative methodologies are among the most often used tactics. It is common practice in mental health services research to conduct a lengthy interview to gather information on the participant’s personal experiences, views, and perceptions about mental health care. This kind of data gathering may vary from short answers to open-ended questions in more organized interviews or surveys to a series of extended interviews with “key informants,” who are persons who are very knowledgeable about the subject under investigation. Many qualitative data collecting methods were used in several qualitative studies of mental health care (Barlow, 2018). In this cyclical process of collecting qualitative data, transforming it into quantitative data, and then validating or elaborating the findings, qualitative approaches are most typically represented. In this research study, content analysis was the specific qualitative approach used to address the topic of the effects of mental health on individuals living in urban marginalized communities.
Two cycles of coding were used to analyze the 9 sources collected for this study. The first cycle involved open coding. This is an analytic process where the codes that are related to the observed data and the phenomenon are attached during the review of the data. This involved the researcher highlighting key words and phrases that stood out. The second coding cycle for this study was in-vivo coding. This is a form of qualitative research that puts more emphasis on what people had to say and share about their experiences, thus allowing the researcher to highlight the specific words and phrases that participants used. The in-vivo coding technique is very much helpful when the research interacts with the participants from the culture or micro-culture.
After these two cycles of coding, the researcher organized the codes into categories, which were then further organized into three themes, which are as follows:
1.lack of support resources (note: access to childcare, access to counselling, community resources)
2.mental health and well-being – stigmatization and being overlooked
3.economic stress (access to affordable housing,
Theme 1: Lack of support resources
In this study, the lack of support resources involves a general lack of resources like childcare, counselling, and other community resources.
Furthermore, young adults of immigrant origin are less likely to be in secure study situations than the majority population [38], and the employment situation of disadvantaged minority groups has been heavily hit by the pandemic [36]. Thus, young adults from ethnic minorities may experience greater financial worries than young adults from the ethnic majority
Note: write about the Wednesday pantry
Theme 2: Stigmatization and overlooking of mental health and well-being
The analyzed data conceptualized stigmatization as the processes whereby something is looked down on, unfairly disapproved of, or given negative connotations because it does not fulfil a particular societal expectation or benchmark. For example, Muyoga and colleagues? (2020) research on the interpersonal violence experienced by Black women in the United States that reveals that there are significant gaps in adequately understanding and treating their lived experiences with depression, suicidal ideations, and domestic violence. Additionally, the study also noted a hesitation of the women to share their experiences due to their fear of being further stigmatized and ignored.
This finding is further supported by Fraga?s study (2019), which states that ?urban life [can] lead to emotional distress, shame and stigma can stop young adults from talking about their struggles (Para. 8). This is a clear example

Theme 3: Economic stress

Furthermore, young adults of immigrant origin are less likely to be in secure study situations than the majority population, and the employment situation of disadvantaged minority groups has been heavily hit by the pandemic. Thus, young adults from ethnic minorities may experience greater financial worries than young adults from the ethnic majority (Plenty, Bracegirdle, Dollmann, & Spiegler, 2021).
Discussion
Limitations
Implications for Child & Youth Care Practice
For children with mental health issues, the pathobiology, social and clinical manifestation, and therapies to alleviate, alter or prevent their beginning are all complicated phenomena. Mental illness is the most common disease among adolescents and young adults, and it accounts for about three times the number of years of disability-adjusted life lost to cancer and heart disease combined in this age range. Most mental diseases begin before the age of 25, and they have a long-term detrimental influence on a person’s psychological, interpersonal, social, and physical well-being. Short and long-term morbidity may be reduced by early detection and management. There is a belief in the medical paradigm that mental illness results from physiological issues (TRUJILLO et al., 2018). Treatment for mental illness is typically prescribed medicine under the medical paradigm, which psychiatrists often employ than psychologists. Physical and mental health issues may lead to mental health issues, and psychologists are trained to identify, diagnose, and treat these issues. In addition, they have a significant role in promoting healthy behaviour, avoiding illness, and increasing patients’ quality of life.
Young people, especially those at adolescent stages, are at higher risk of developing mental illnesses. This can happen when exposed to various factors, including social, physical, and emotional changes resulting from exposure to poverty, violence, and abuse. Currently, there is a rise in cases related to mental illness among youths in most North American states. This research will be helpful not only to the health centres but also to the health ministry in developing policies, structures, and policies that will ensure that most youths do not experience severe psychological illnesses. This can be done by providing intervention measures to reduce risk factors and solutions to the array of economic and social problems affecting youths, especially those living in urban centres.
For children with mental health issues, the pathobiology, social and clinical manifestation, and therapies to alleviate, alter or prevent their beginning are all complicated phenomena. Mental illness is the most common disease among adolescents and young adults, and it accounts for about three times the number of years of disability-adjusted life lost to cancer and heart disease combined in this age range. Most mental diseases begin before the age of 25, and they have a long-term detrimental influence on a person’s psychological, interpersonal, social, and physical well-being. This is to be closely looked at with CYC practitioners, as youth are developing mental health disorders before the age of 25. Ideally, practitioners are to work closely with urban communities to tackle this prominent issue at hand. Communities are lacking resources of CYC practitioners, who are well needed to address the increasing rates of mental health on youths. Short and long-term morbidity may be reduced by early detection and management. There is a belief in the medical paradigm that mental illness results from physiological issues (TRUJILLO et al., 2018). Treatment for mental illness is typically prescribed medicine under the medical paradigm, which psychiatrists often employ than psychologists. Physical and mental health issues may lead to mental health issues, and psychologists are trained to identify, diagnose, and treat these issues. While CYC practitioners are needed in communities, schools, other communal environments to support not only the needs of youths but also their families. In addition, they have a significant role in promoting healthy behaviour, avoiding illness, and increasing patients’ quality of life.
Lastly, Young people, especially those at adolescent stages, are at higher risk of developing mental illnesses. This can happen when exposed to various factors, including social, physical, and emotional changes resulting from exposure to poverty, violence, and abuse. Currently, there is a rise in cases related to mental illness among youths in most North American states. This research will be helpful not only to the health centres but also to the health ministry in developing policies, structures, and policies that will ensure that most youths do not experience severe psychological illnesses. This can be done by providing intervention measures to reduce risk factors and solutions to the array of economic and social problems affecting youths, especially those living in urban centres.
Conclusion

References
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Appendices
Tcsp
gnatt chart
student ethics agreement