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Christopher Liang

Exploring the Impact of Clean Nutrition, Adequate Hydration and Moderate Intake of Whiskies for Boosting Immunity Against COVID-19
By Christopher Liang Submission for Heliyon Partner of Cell Press 04.04.2022

1.Executive Summary
Covid 19 is a pandemic has affected the entire world. There have been challenges on how to support the general population’s immune system, particularly those under self- confinement. An immune system greatly depends on proper Nutrition, adequate hydration, and whatever an individual takes in, which helps avoid infection. For instance, enough protein intake is important for the production of optimal antibodies. This study is research on the impacts of adequate hydration, clean nutrition, and whiskies intake, which improves the body’s immunity against Covid 19. The research was done through a standardized anonymous online questionnaire survey carried out by different people all over the county (n=198, the male was male 57%, female 43%). The total percentage of all the variables was counted, and the findings were that people must take in, as it will enhance their immunity against Covid 19. Adequate hydration, quality and clean nutrition, and intake of whisky were good for boosting a person’s immune system against the Covid 19 virus. For people to combat the Covid 19 virus, they will need to boost their immune system, as this is the only way they can survive.
The Covid 19 outbreak has rapidly been evolving. There have been strict measures and policies to control it, including self-confinement and social distancing. Some individuals’ self- confinement has been considered stressful, and people might stop getting enough proper hydration Nutrition and take unhealthy foods. Covid 19 has been a viral disease that largely attacks individuals with low immune systems. The best strategy, in this case, is for a person to enhance their immune system, as this will help them fight the pathogenic viral infection. To prevent infection, it is paramount to have a functional, healthy immune system and a key foundation for an immune response and controlling the virulent strain infections is adequate hydration and good nutrition.
Nutritional status is crucial in keeping a strong immune system against Covid 19. Certain factors such as age, lifestyle, medications, sex, and health status affect a person’s nutritional status. In the Covid 19 pandemic, individuals’ health status has been a resilience measure towards destabilization. Dietary nutrient intake and optimal Nutrition affect a person’s immune system through gene expression, signaling molecule, cell activation, and molecule modification. Additionally, some dietary ingredients determine the composition of the gut microbe body’s immune response. Therefore, the existing evidence suggests that to survive in the covid 19 pandemic, the only sustainable way is to strengthen the people?s immune system. An individual needs to take vitamins B, A, B12. E, C, iron, and zinc to maintain the functioning of their immune system. There have been challenges that have been imposed by the virus, such that individuals no longer maintain a healthy diet. Social distancing, lockdown and self- isolation are essential measures, although over time, they have brought forth severe reputations on the lifestyles of individuals. In fact, self-confinement affects one?s health by changing the patterns of eating, physical activity, and sleeping habits. This causes sedentary behaviors, which affect a person’s physical and mental health and may also lead to obesity risk. Anxiety and fear may also lead to dietary habits changes resulting in unhealthy dietary habits.

A balanced diet ensures that one maintains a strong immune system that has the potential to withstand the virus assault. There is never any evidence at the moment that can boost or supplement the immune system or prevent and treat a viral infection, apart from vitamin C, as it has major water-soluble vitamins constituents. Therefore, it is important, especially during this Covid 19 pandemic, to be aware of the certain food types that can improve a person’s immune system to combat Covid 19.
Adequate hydration is also very crucial in boosting the body’s immune system. The immune system has mechanics which respond to tissue damage, infection, and cellular stress to defend the body against foreign antigens. The immune system needs water to perform effectively and properly. Water forms 60-75% of a person’s weight. It is important in regulating functions, for instance, absorption, digestion, excretion, transfer, biomolecules circulation, and body temperature regulation. Recommended consumption of water is different from one individual to the other. The water requirement is affected by gender, age, diet, physical activity, pregnancy, body composition, presence of any disease and environmental conditions. Some of the functions of water in the body in boosting the immune system include; having an active metabolism, normal pressure modulation, body temperature regulation and maintaining the balance of electrolytes. One of the immune system’s reactions against the Covid 19 virus is increasing the body’s temperature. The main symptom of the Covid 19 patients is fever, which most of them suffer from. When one has a fever, they tend to sweat most of the time, resulting in a lot of water loss from the body. When the temperatures of the body increase, it is important for an individual to take enough liquid of high Ph levels to replace that which the body has lost and for thermoregulation.
Spirits, for instance: Whisky; Gin and Vodka, also have a nutritional value in boosting the body’s immune system. They contain a high concentration of pure alcohol, water and variable sugar amounts. They also contain small amounts of nutrients such as vitamins, proteins and minerals. The carbohydrate in each beverage varies. For instance, Vodka and Whisky have no sugars. Covid 19 has indeed affected people’s health, food security and economy. Consequently, those who suffer most cannot afford healthcare services. Because of the prices of the basic needs going up and there being a delay of food supply, poor people have been unable to meet their daily needs. Concerning this, we purposed to study the impacts of clean Nutrition, adequate hydration and moderate intake of whiskies for boosting immunity against Covid 19.

3.Materials and methods
3.1Data collection
Data were randomly collected through a standardized anonymous online questionnaire. This collection was done between 2nd August to 17th August. After several months, we collected additional data from 4th January to 19th January 2021. It was difficult to carry out the physical survey during this period of Covid 19, as the government already put tight measures to contain it. The questions we asked were aimed at 270 people. In the end, the study was carried out among 198 individuals (male 57%, female 43%), from 18 years to years of age. The people who took part in the survey included the illiterate, educated, and professionals. 13 questions were set, and there were additional questions, for example, gender, status and age. The participants could only take part in the survey once, and they made submissions when they wished to. The questionnaires were shared on the social media platforms such as messenger, Facebook, Twitter and WhatsApp, as the participants could access them on their laptops, computers, tablets and smartphones. The purpose of the research was to see if adequate hydration, intake of whisky and good nutrition increased a person?s immunity and the effect of Covid 19 on the participants. However, after this survey, we found out that only 7 percent of the participants had the Covid 19 vaccine because of poor nutrition and dehydration. All the participants had room to consent before carrying out the survey (Appendix 1). The protocol of this study was approved by the Research Ethical Review Committee of the WHO as well as the Regional Committee of Medical and Health Research Ethics (Approval Number: 2017/1077). Furthermore, consent was given from all the participants before the survey was conducted.
3.2Data Analysis
The analysis of the data was done through the IBM SPSS 21.0 version. There was tabulation in excel using a pivot table. The standard deviation, mean and percentage of the data collected was calculated.
4.Results and discussion
4.1. Participants’ demographic characteristics
Table 1 illustrates the participants’ demographic characteristics. One hundred ninety- eight participants took part in the survey and gave their opinions. Of all the participants, 113 were male, and 85 were female. Most of the participants who took part in the survey were low- income individuals. There were no alcoholic participants who were identified.

Table 1: the participants’ demographic characteristics

Parameters values
Study subjects (n) 198
Sex ([n, (%))
Male 113(57 percent)
Female 85 (43 percent)
Age (years) 27.9 + – 6.17
Occupation (n, (%)]
Farmers 17
Banker 3
Business 14
Doctor 9
Day laborer 18
Teacher 21
Rickshaw puller 8
Students 14
Others 9
Banker 7
Business 9
Doctor 10
Day laborer 7
Teacher 21
Students 11
Housewives 19
Others 1
Education [n, (%)]
Primary 27
Secondary 32
Higher secondary 49
Graduate 68

No formal education 22
Income/month (US$) 9500-14800
Smoking in male [n, (%)]
Yes 62
No 136
Alcohol intake 44

4.2 Food availability at the Participants’ Homes (including Whisky)
Figure 1 illustrates the food items that were available at the homes of the participants. Wheat is the country’s staple food, and there was a significant amount of it (77 percent) at their homes, most definitely because of the Covid 19 pandemic. There were only a few people (3.4 percent) who were unavailable and yet to be exposed to this food. Reportedly, it was noted that the economy in the rural areas fell by 74 percent per capita and 83 percent in the urban areas between the months of August and December 2020. Because of this, the consumption of foods by most individuals was reduced three times than their normal daily consumption. Most individuals did not buy foods such as meat and fish because there was an increase in the prices of such foods. However, 22 percent of the participants kept some considerable amounts of whisky in their homes. The participants who took whisky said they often take it, because they were aware of their health effects if consumed in regular amounts.
4.3.Participants’ Dietary Habits (Clean Nutrition and Adequate Hydration)
In our study, most participants (n=112) consumed different vegetables and fruits. Vitamin C can be found in unpressed and fresh foods, such as vegetables and fruits, and it is essential in boosting an individual’s immune system. However, 22 percent of the respondents did not take foods that boost their immune systems. A small percentage of individuals consumed fish (11 percent). We found out that chickens were more prone to the SARs coronavirus. Most people, therefore, avoided consuming eggs and chicken. Because of the pandemic, people started being aware of the advantage of taking healthy foods, and only 4.4 percent of them ate sugary foods in the unprocessed and unhealthy foods. They were aware that unhealthy foods decrease neutrophil activities, yet it is very important in promoting the body’s immunity system.
The wheat (i.e. Carbohydrates) intake results in insulin resistance. It should not be so much consumed by individuals who have high blood pressure, heart disease, or obesity because they could be more prone to getting infected with the coronavirus. Maintaining good Nutrition and a healthy diet during the pandemic requires taking 50?60% carbohydrates every day. 19. 7 percent of the people consumed fresh foods or drinks, e.g., water. Individuals must take in fruit juice or more water since it clears the virus suck on the throat. Contrary to this, there is a deficiency in the number of individuals who drink plenty of water. Only a very small percentage (1.2 percent) of the participants were found to be taking fast foods and snacks. Fast foods are mostly rich in saturated fats, sodium, cholesterol and sodium. These would cause an individual to get diseases such as cardiovascular illness. When people are self-confined, they take foods with more sugars and more snacks, which is harmful to their health, particularly now that they are exposed to the covid 19 virus. For a better and healthier life for the people, they should be encouraged to take more water every day. There has been a misconception that too much water washes away the covid 19 virus. WHO advises that people should take in water

after every few minutes so that their throat and mouth could be moistened. The Coronavirus is absorbed by the water and is swept away to the esophagus, and this is where the gastric acid from the stomach kills it as its PH is between 1 to 3.
4.4.Management of sanitation and hygiene by the participants (Proper Nutrition)
One of the reasons for getting infected with coronavirus will be if their hands are contaminated. Therefore, it would be best if people wash their hands repeatedly and avoid contaminants. Our study confirmed that most of the people (n=156) repeatedly washed their hands. From the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), Covid 19 virus might be spread through the respiratory droplets from one individual to the other or if one gets close to an infected individual. There is, however, a small transmission risk of food packaging or food. If an individual touches food that is contaminated or contaminated surfaces and then uses the hands to eat or touch their mouth, they are at more risk of getting infected with covid
19. Good sanitation and proper hygiene can help stop coronavirus.
4.5.Different agents used to clean foods before processing or to take.
One hundred thirty-two people from our study believe that the virus could be frozen, raw, or packaged foods. Seventy-nine respondents are convinced that the food packets or food may get them infected with the coronavirus, as they have the potential to multiply when in foods. However, other misconceptions exist, and there is no evidence proving that the covid 19 virus could live on the food surfaces. One hundred eighty-two respondents cleaned their vegetables and fruits or observed proper hygiene, and there was only 10 percent failed to use an agent to clean them. Of the 182 respondents, 37 percent of them thoroughly washed their foods in hot freshwater, which is the best way to wash foods. At least 12 percent of food handlers used turmeric powder and salt in water. This was a perfect way of removing all the germs in the food before consumption. There are many advantages of using turmeric powder, including reducing the symptoms of depression, reducing the pain of arthritis, boosting the body?s immunity against covid 19 and treating diabetes. Turmeric powder usually has antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory effects on the body. It as well prevents cold and cough, sinusitis and throat infection.
About 12 percent of the participants in the survey said that they had been cleaning their foods using vinegar water or lemon water. Lemon and vinegar can clear off the pesticides such as bacteria and reduce the level of the pathogen from the vegetables and fruits. Out of the 182 respondents, they washed their foods using the bleaching power, soap or detergent. It was reported that washing foods with soap could threaten a person’s health. There are some precautions that people need to take while washing foods since there can be cross-contamination, and this can pose double harm to people’s health, particularly during the Covid 19 pandemic.
4.6.Participants’ physical exercise habits
Participants’ physical exercise habits showed that 47 percent exercised for at least 25 minutes every day, and 20 percent exercised for at least 1 min daily. Many of them did manual jobs such as rickshaw pullers, and they were the most exercised. There was 15 percent of the people who did not exercise as they live sedentary lives. Among these groups of individuals, 9 percent of them had already been infected by the coronavirus. The study shows that people who lived sedentary lives and did not exercise were more likely to be infected by the virus than those who exercised. Suppose an individual decreases their exercise

activities, particularly during the pandemic. In that case, they may get chronic illnesses, for instance, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and hypertension, and thus reduce the ability of their immune system to fight against Covid 19.
4.7 Covid-19 positive patients after the follow-up
After the months of the first enrollment, there was data collected on the status of Covid 19 of the study subjects or participants. During the follow-up study, some results were similar to that of the first enrollment. Again, there were 17 out of the initial 198 participants whose corona status was positive. There was also a cross-check of the participant’s profiles, and 13 people were found to have shifted into living sedentary lives, which could result in illnesses such as viral infections. Another study showed that poor physical activity, hygiene or failure to observe proper Nutrition, failing to take adequate water and living sedentary lives could result in diabetes, obesity, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance. Consequently, it leads to viral infections, including Covid 19.

5.0 Conclusion
Covid 19 is a viral infection spreading worldwide, and its emergence led to a large number of deaths within a very short period. There are researches that scientists are carrying out in trying to understand the efficient and effective vaccines that can control the demand infection rate among people. Organizations, for instance, WHO, have given various ways to be safe from infection. A proper diet helps one’s body to fight the virus. The food safety management system should give the food safety workers and officials proper protective equipment to avoid getting in contact with contaminants. From the study, it is clear that there is no clear virus contamination through the foods or food packaging. However, it is recommended that good food practices reduce contamination risk. Ways through which this can be achieved include; washing the fruits and vegetables before consuming them, washing and disinfecting surfaces and objects each time after and before use, wrapping up food when it’s in the parking space, and cleaning surfaces repeatedly to avoid contamination. Adequate water or liquid consumption can give one a robust immune system, resisting the coronavirus.
A particular amount of nutrients prevents nutritional deficiencies through their saturation in the cells. People who consume a good diet are safer and have good immune systems, which decreases their chances of getting chronic infections and diseases. This study researched the healthy dietary habits that maintain people’s mental and physical heaths.
Additionally, in as much as our participants took alcohol, researchers have proven that spirits such as whisky have fewer calories than other alcohols. It also does not have sugar or carbohydrates. It has the potential to reduce inflammation of the body and also lower obesity risks. From research, there are also other benefits of whisky to the health of individuals when consumed. However, these benefits are linked to drinking moderately, as too much alcohol leads to health complications. Whisky helps give relief to the symptoms of cold, as it widens the blood vessels. It also supports an individual’s immune system, as it removes bacteria faster and responds better to the antibodies. It also has high polyphenol levels, lowering an individual’s heart disease risks. The antioxidants found in whisky also ensure that one maintains a chemical balance in their body. Although people’s eating habits change because of the policies imposed to curb Covid 19 (distance and isolation), this study concluded that adequate hydration, clean nutrition, and consumption of whisky play a crucial role in improving a person’s immunity in managing Covid 19.

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