Looking to have a writer finish up the last few pages of my rough draft due on Wednesday. I have all the sources pulled, most of the report written. Topic is Legos in STEM with a discussion section half written and in need of a basic conclusion. Again. This is for the peer review rough draft turn inBuilding the Foundation of the Future: A Lego Story
KATELYN E. MURRAY
A Senior Project submitted in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Bachelor of Science in Industrial Engineering
University of Southern Mississippi
Literature Review 4
Literature Review Methodology 4
History of Lego 7
Quality Control 7
Quality Control vs. Environmental Concerns: 8
Case Studies to Reduce Carbon: 11
Lego in Education 12
Lego in Construction 13
Founded in 1932, Lego Toy Company experienced large scale growth in the 2020 fiscal year seeing twenty-one percent growth and Thirteenth percent revenue growth (The Lego Group, 2021). Record success can only be achieved by strict quality control methods. This can be seen in the quality of Lego building bricks, that will fit into any brick made in the last sixty years, no matter it?s age (Venables, 2013). Working on constant quality control means Lego surpasses the toy market competition. With Lego standards across the toy market, children wouldn?t get sick and or die from faulty toys.
Lego, a basic brick building toy designed for children, has been a worldwide staple for near eighty years. With high quality control standards and strict processes in place during manufacturing. Any brick made in the last eighty years, will fit perfectly into another newer brick. When many toys are designed to fail after a certain amount of time. The quality control process Lego uses is incomparable in the toy market.
Over the last eighty years, Lego brand toys has not only inspired young mind to enter a STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) career, but also inspired those minds to create new technology based on lessons learned from playing with Lego building blocks as children.
Industry leader in tire sales. Lego manufactures tires, bricks, and assorted pieces to the Lego collection at a staggering rate. The quality in unsurpassed, no spurring that over the years. Other industries and companies have looked at Lego Technology and worked to apply it into their own lines of business. Construction using Lego technology, as well as the robotics realm are a few examples of the industries using Lego as source material for advancement.
The following literary review will concentrate on the history of quality control, with specific regards to Lego and its evolution into a building block of Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) careers. Overall, there is more literature via word of mouth than there are scholarly sources indicating the high quality of standards present in all Lego products.
Due to the available resources, this paper will not only focus on the quality of Lego, but how a toy company has created a trusted product that directly relates to the education and training of future STEM academics as well as the uses of Lego technology applied to businesses and construction with the goal of better efficiency and better operational management.
Literature Review Methodology
As the available literature is heavily segmented into categories. This paper will account for that and break up the mini subjects within the Lego vs. STEM realm, starting with the History of Lego and the quality control, moving into the use of Lego in education, construction, robotics as well as firsthand accounts of the meaning of Lego and its impact on STEM. This will showcase the importance of high standards and how longevity of a company relies on good standards at the start.
History of Lego
?Only the best is good enough? (Lego). With such strong mottos and an extensive history dating back to the start in 1932 when the first Lego group was founded. Beyond the extensive background into the founding of the company, the only reliable sources found discussing the history of Lego from a non-bias standpoint. The history of Lego can be expanded to be viewed from the cultural standpoint based on the impact of the company. (P., 2015).
Lego in Education
Building the future by inspiring young minds. Lego?s basic structure of interlocking building plastic-block toys that originated in Denmark and are extensively desired globally. The Danish words ?leg godt,? meaning ?play well,? are the origin of its name (Lipkowitz, 2018).
In chemical education, LEGO bricks and models have been utilized as teaching aids to illustrate chemical structures and reactions, as well as to construct handmade instruments. Since each brick can represent an atom, an ion, or a molecule, linking them together can represent molecular, crystal, and polymeric structures. Further, since the bricks can be easily connected and disconnected, brick-based molecular models can be used to represent chemical compositions and reactions (Horikoshi, 2020).
By the powers that be, Lego has an extensive history of working in Education, thus the source material is lengthly, detailed and well researched. Especially with regards to the Lego contribution of STEM subjects as well as the impact interlocking bricks play on future career minds.
Lego in Construction
Construction is the building of a structure. Lego building blocks are miniature ways to build structures of unique designs. Over the years of growth, Lego has influenced Construction practices in more than one way.
Inspiring new technology with the aim at streamlining and building stronger and more environmentally free structures. Lego technology is being used as a model for this by creating technology such as bendable concrete (Bao & Li, 2020).
While evidence of constant influence on the construction industry. Many of the resources found relating to the construction industry and its effects with Lego, many of them focus on a line of products called Lego Construction, a line dedicated to building construction related equipment, buildings and additional machinery. This makes research tedious and many of the key words are the same with multiple contexts. Though research is difficult, there is highly details articles, case studies and additional sources of material covering the construction to Lego genre.
History of Lego
Lego is the perfect toy, renowned for its high-quality standard. Numerous articles, videos, as well as the company itself openly discuss the high standards found in the creation of every Lego brick, no matter the size. Maintaining the corporation?s error rate of 0.000000018% means high standards without compromise. This is achieved with a defect rate of 18 bricks per 1,000,000 manufactured (Boulter et al., 2022).
High standards mean that no matter how many Lego sets you buy since 1958, will fit the exact same way, each and every time (Smith, 2016). No other toy company in the world can say there is such a high degree of accuracy with the product. Nor, can most products have such a long lifespan. This quality, not only set?s Lego apart, but builds the foundation for the company to add creativity, as well as interest in the STEM field for children at a young age.
Having such a strong foundation has been created from perfecting the materials used in the construction of Lego bricks. Having originally been made of wood, Lego and a man named Hans Schiess, pioneered the use of a new plastic in the creation of Lego (The Lego Group history). Completed in 1963, a newer product known as Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) turned into the Lego standard; this product allowed Lego to perfect mold technology to create near perfect casts of Lego bricks (Boulter et al., 2022).
After a series of tests, ABS Material improvements permit a greater precision in molding, which is now done to an accuracy of 1/200 mm (Insert Reference Here). ABS is a mainstream material used in fused filament fabrication (FFF) 3D printing, is generally considered to be biocompatible, and can be easily sanitized, used in household applications and is safe for uses in food, meaning children are safe around the product (Kubicova et al., 2021). The properties of ABS enable LEGO bricks to withstand high mechanical loads and resist high impacts relative to the scale of the bricks (Boulter et al., 2022).
While Lego has perfected the ABS technology for continued qualities of bricks, there are still noted imperfections in Lego. Not many sources openly discuss the defects and errors presented in Lego products, but those that do point to the fact that most inconsistencies in Lego products appear in the packaging, and accessories, such as the face stickers, instructions misprints and additional parts (Downard, 2020).
Quality Control vs. Environmental Concerns:
As the world continues to make strives and find new breakthroughs with the goal of environmental cleanup, Lego is not the only company with whom the information and practices are questions. The Environmental impacts of using ABS, noted for its longevity, means the environment may not be as happy as the millions of children building Lego creations around the world. Fortunately, there are quite a few good articles and discussions on how to ensure the plastic nature of Lego bricks are adjusted to meet the standards of today.
A Study of the contribution of Lego as ocean Plastic Waste published in Environmental Pollution explores how Lego bricks wear down in the oceanic environment. This study was achieved by utilizing fifty pieces of Lego bricks that washed up on beaches in Southwest England. Using X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) to examine the elements of the bricks, many of which are no longer in use and therefore date the bricks. These fifty bricks, also measured by weight, were determined to originate from the 1970?s and 1980?s. Using the measured data, Lego bricks, age depended, would survive between 100, and 1,300 years in the oceans (?LEGO CONTRIBUTES TO OCEAN PLASTIC WASTE?, 2020).
With environmental concerns at the forefront, Lego listens to its customers and has begun working on new technologies aimed at keeping the Lego brick the same quality, color, and strength it?s known for, while changing the ingredients to plant-based or recycled materials by 2030. This is a shift away from the petroleum-based plastics, such as ABS, currently used in all Lego products (Reed, 2018).
Lego, is not the only company of late to work towards reducing energy emissions and carbon footprint scale. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has become the newest technology race. Lego, as typical for the company?s history of innovation, has surpassed the CSR goals of toy companies.
Beginning in 2012, Lego started investing in wind turbines aimed at powering their global operations. As a result, more than 360 gigawatt hours of energy used by Lego in 2016 came from a direct result of wind power. This allowed Lego to produce more than 75 billion bricks during 2016 (API, 2017).
While Lego works to be a leader in CSR, that doesn?t mean everything Lego does is perfect. In 2014, a Greenpeace campaign with aims at stopping arctic oil spills and dependency on drilling oil led to Lego being called out directly for their use of Shell Oil in the manufacturing of bricks.
A statement from Lego Group CEO J?rgen Vig Knudstorp:
The LEGO Group operates in a responsible manner and continually strives to live up to the motto of the company since 1932: ?Only the best is good enough?.
We are determined to leave a positive impact on society and the planet that children will inherit. Our unique contribution is through inspiring and developing children by delivering creative play experiences all over the world.
A co-promotion contract like the one with Shell is one of many ways we are able to bring LEGO? bricks into the hands of more children.
We welcome and are inspired by all relevant input we receive from fans, children, parents, NGOs and other stakeholders. They have high expectations to the way we operate. So do we.
The Greenpeace campaign focuses on how Shell operates in a specific part of the world. We firmly believe that this matter must be handled between Shell and Greenpeace. We are saddened when the LEGO brand is used as a tool in any dispute between organizations.
Journal of Critical Incidents, Volume 8 132 We expect that Shell lives up to their responsibilities wherever they operate and take appropriate action to any potential claims should this not be the case. I would like to clarify that we intend to live up to the long-term contract with Shell, which we entered into in 2011.
We will continue to live our motto of ?only the best is good enough? and deliver creative and inspiring LEGO play experiences to children all over the world.
With many of the best minds in manufacturing and environmental science studying, as well as Lego?s dedication and commitment to cleaning up its footprint, the future of Lego is bright, and will have many new studies over the next few years. Additional areas Lego can improve are boundless, some case study examples are as follows:
Case Studies to Reduce Carbon:
oBy working to design packaging to allow for less air, boxes can be made smaller, and more packages can be included in shipments, allowing for more products produced and shipped. A study where Lego sets based on the number of bricks, can be set into standard sized boxes, again, ensuring the least amount of dead space can help cardboard production.
?Plastic Waste that is bio degradable
?Move the Lego Magazine Online.
Lego in Education
Lego in Construction
API, C. Q. A. (2017, September 5). How Lego leveraged a toy quality management system for improved CSR. How Lego Leveraged A Toy Quality Management System For Improved CSR. Retrieved March 14, 2022, from https://www.api-hk.com/quality-assurance-for-household-goods-blog/how-lego-leveraged-a-toy-quality-management-system-for-improved-csr
Bao, Y., & Li, V. C. (2020). Feasibility study of lego-inspired construction with bendable concrete. Automation in Construction, 113. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2020.103161
Boulter, E., Colombelli, J., Henriques, R., & F?ral, C. C. (2022). The LEGO? Brick Road to open science and Biotechnology. Trends in Biotechnology, 1?15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tibtech.2022.02.003
Downard, K. (2020, November 16). Plastic perfection: A look at Lego Quality Control. The Holo-Brick Archives – The LEGO Star Wars Resource. Retrieved March 10, 2022, from https://www.holobrickarchive.com/2020/11/plastic-perfection-a-look-at-lego-quality-control/
Horikoshi, R. (2020). Teaching chemistry with LEGO? Bricks. Chemistry Teacher International, 3(3), 239?255. https://doi.org/10.1515/cti-2020-0017
Kubicova, M., Puchta, E., S?ger, S., Hug, C., Hofmann, S., & Simat, T. J. (2021). Styrene-acrylonitrile-copolymer and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene-copolymer: A study on extractable and migratable oligomers. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, 39(2), 397?414. https://doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2021.1995631
LEGO CONTRIBUTES TO OCEAN PLASTIC WASTE. (2020). TCE: The Chemical Engineer, (947), 4?4.
The Lego Group history. The LEGO Group History – The LEGO Group – About us – LEGO.com US. (n.d.). Retrieved February 1, 2022, from https://www.lego.com/en-us/aboutus/lego-group/the-lego-group-history/
Lego History 1890-1929. LEGO? History – LEGO.com US. (n.d.). Retrieved March 15, 2022, from https://www.lego.com/en-us/history
Lipkowitz, D. (2018). The lego book. DK Publishing.
P., W. M. J. (2015). Lego Studies: Examining the building blocks of a transmedial phenomenon. Routledge.
Quality in every detail. Quality in every detail – LEGO? History – LEGO.com AU. (2022). Retrieved March 13, 2022, from https://www.lego.com/en-au/history/articles/d-quality-in-every-detail/
Reed, S. (2018, August 31). Lego wants to completely remake its toy bricks (without anyone noticing). The New York Times. Retrieved March 11, 2022, from https://www.nytimes.com/2018/08/31/business/energy-environment/lego-plastic-denmark-environment-toys.html
Smith, G. (2016). Lego Is the Perfect Toy. New York, 49(24), 54?60.